Planning and Design of Behavioral Healthcare Facilities

July 6, 2017

Behavioral Healthcare Facilities: The Current State of Design

In keeping with most districts of healthcare, the marketplace has seen a boom in the construction of Behavioral Healthcare facilities. Contributing to this increase is the paradigm shift in the way society views mental illness. Society is placing a heavier value on the need to treat people with serious addictions such as alcohol, prescription and elicit drugs. A large percentage of people suffering from behavioral disorders are afflicted with both mental and addictive behaviors, and most will re-enter communities and either become contributors or violators.

These very specialized facilities do not typically yield the attention from today’s top healthcare designers and their quantity accounts for a small fraction of healthcare construction. However, Behavioral Healthcare projects are increasing in number and are being designed by some very prominent architectural firms such as Cannon Design and Architecture Plus. Many are creating state-of-the-art, award-winning contemporary facilities that defy what most of us believe Behavioral Healthcare design to be.

Changing the Way We Design Behavioral Healthcare Facilities

As with all good planners and designers, A+D (along with facility experts) are reviewing the direct needs of patient and staff while reflecting on how new medicine and modern design can foster patient healing rates, reduce environmental stress, and increase safety. This is changing the face of treatment and outcome by giving the practitioner more time to treat because they require less time and resources to “manage” disruptive patient populations.

The face of Behavioral Healthcare is quickly changing. No longer are these facilities designed to warehouse patients indefinitely. And society’s expectations have changed. Patients are often treated with the belief that they can return to their community and be a contributor to society. According to the National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems (NAPHS), depending on the severity of illness, the average length of stay in a Behavioral Healthcare facility is only 9.6 days.

What has changed?

Jaques Laurence Black, AIA, president and principal of New York City-based daSILVA Architects, states that there are two primary reasons for the shortened admission period:

1. Introduction of modern psychotropic drugs that greatly speed recovery

2. Pressures from insurance companies to get patients out of expensive modes of care

To meet these challenges, healthcare professionals are finding it very difficult to effectively treat patients within the walls of antiquated, rapidly deteriorating mental facilities. A great percentage of these facilities were built between 1908 and 1928 and were designed for psychiatric needs that were principled in the belief to “store” not to “rehabilitate.”

Also impacting the need for Behavioral Healthcare construction is the reluctance of acute-care facilities to provide mental health level services for psychiatric or addiction patients. They recognize that patient groups suffering from behavioral disorders have unique health needs, all of which need to be handled and treated only by very experienced healthcare professionals. This patient population also requires a heightened level of security. Self-harm and injuring staff and other patients are major concerns.

The Report of the Surgeon General: “Epidemiology of Mental Illness” also reports that within a given year about 20% of Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder and 5.4% suffer from a serious mental illness (SMI ) – defined as bipolar, panic, obsessive-compulsive, personality, and depression disorders and schizophrenia. It is also believed 6% of Americans suffer from addiction disorders, a statistic that is separate from individuals who suffer from both mental and addiction disorders. Within a given year it is believed that over one-quarter of America’s population warrants levels of mental clinical care. Even if these statistics were cut in half, it cannot be denied as a serious societal issue.

With a growing population, effectively designing in accordance with such measures is at the heart of public health.

Understanding the Complexity of Behavioral Healthcare Design

Therefore, like Corrections, leading planners and designers specializing in Behavioral Healthcare are delving deeper to better understand the complexity of issues and to be the activist to design facilities that promote treatment and healing – and a safer community.

The following is a list of key design variables that are being studied and implemented:

1. Right Sizing

2. Humanizing Materials and Color

3. Staff-Focused Amneties and Happiness

4. Security and Safety

5. Therapeutic Design Tenants

Right-sizing

Today’s Behavioral Healthcare facilities are often one-story single buildings within a campus size. Often debated by Clients due to costs, this design preference is driven by the demand for Uncategorized light, window views to nature for all patient areas, and outdoor open-air gardens “wrapped” within. All of this provides soothing qualities to the patient, reduces their anxieties, counteracts disruptive conduct and helps to reduce staff stress.

“When you look at the program mix in these buildings, there’s a high demand for perimeter because there are a lot of rooms that need Uncategorized light. Offices, classrooms, dining areas, community rooms, and patient rooms all demand Uncategorized light, so you end up with a tremendous amount of exterior wall, and it forces the building to have a very large footprint.” – James Kent Muirhead, AIA, associate principal at Cannon Design in Baltimore

These design principles are also believed to improve staff work conditions. Unlike a multi-story complex, at any moment staff can walk outdoors and access nature, free from visual barriers, and within a building that more accurately reflects building types that both patients and staff would encounter in their communities.

In addition to right-sizing for the overall building footprint, is right-sizing for internal patient and staff support area. Similar to the move we have seen in Corrections to de-centralize support spaces, Behavioral Healthcare is moving to decentralized nursing/patient units called “neighborhoods.” With mental health facilities there is a large concern with distances and space adjacencies in relation to the patient room and patient support areas such as treatment and social spaces. Frank Pitts, AIA, FACHA, OAA president of Architecture Plus, Troy, NY, advocates neighborhoods that average 24-30 beds arranged in sub-clusters, called “houses”, of 8-10 beds. Thus, each neighborhood consists of three houses. Often these layouts will include a common area where patients congregate and socialize, with a separate quiet room so patients can elect to avoid active, crowded areas. In addition Pitts states, “There’s a move away from central dining facilities. So, while facilities will still have a central kitchen, it’s a whole lot easier moving food than it is patients.” However, it is important for the facility to mimic normal outside daily life routines, so patients are encouraged to frequently leave their neighborhoods to attend treatment sessions, and outdoor courtyards.

Humanizing Materials & Color

In all facilities that play a role in rehabilitation, design strives to create spaces that humanize, calm, and relax. Behavioral Healthcare patients need to feel that they are in familiar surroundings; therefore, the architectural vocabulary should feel comfortable and normal. Since these facilities are about rehabilitation (when possible) and encouraging patients to merge back into society, the facility should feel like an extension of the community. Their spaces should reflect the nature and architecture of the surrounding region and thus so, no two facilities should look too much alike.

“Our a
pproach to designing these facilities is to view the facility as an extension of the community where patients will end up when they’re released. Interior finishes also depend on geography because you want to replicate the environment patients are used to. You want to de-stigmatize the facility as much as possible.” – Tim Rommel, AIA, ACHA, OAA, principal with Cannon Design in Buffalo, NY.

Therefore, materials and colors within these spaces want to feel familiar to one’s region and everyday life. To soothe the psyche and rehabilitate, they want to feel soft and comfortable, yet visually stimulating. An interior that is overly neutral or hard in appearance is not appropriate. Materials should reduce noise, and colors should lift the spirit. This can help to create an environment in which the patient can learn, socialize, and be productive while easing anxieties, delivering dignity, and modifying behavior. As stated previously, behavioral studies advise the use of softer interior materials-like carpeting, wood doors and tile. Doing so translates directly to both patient and staff well-being, particularly staff safety, and makes for a nicer place to work. In addition, staff have more resources to “treat” instead of manage heated situations. When staff experiences are eased and satisfied, morale is boosted and life-saving rules and policies are more likely to be enforced.

Staff-Focused Amenities & Happiness

While reducing staff stress and fatigue through a healing supportive environment seems like an obvious goal, there are relatively few studies that have dealt with this issue in any detail. More attention has been given to patient outcomes. However, many leading hospitals that have adopted therapeutic tenants into their newly built environments have seen vast improvement through their “business matrixes” and financial reporting.

In one example, the Mayo Clinic, a national leader in implementing healing design in its facilities, has reported a reduction of nursing turnover from a national annual average of 20% to an annual 3%-4%. In another example, when Bronson Methodist Hospital incorporated evidence-based design into its new 343-bed hospital, they cited their 19%-20% nurse turnover rate dramatically dropped to 5%.

Now, both the Mayo Clinic and Bronson Methodist Hospital have had to initiate a waiting list for nursing staff seeking positions. This converts to better-trained and qualified staff, and a reduced error rate. Therefore, more health facilities are investing in staff support areas such as lounges, changing rooms, and temporary sleep rooms. Within these staff spaces and in the hospital throughout, facilities are also recognizing the need for upgrade materials, better day lighting, and an interesting use of color: One soon realizes that the need of patients and staff are interwoven, each impacting positively or negatively the other.

Security & Safety

Without debate, self harm and harm to staff is one of the biggest concerns mental health facilities manage. Often the biggest safety and security concern is the damage patients can do to themselves. “There are three rules I had drummed in me,” says Mark Hanchar; Director of Preconstruction Services for Gilbane Building Company, Providence, R.I. “First, there can’t be any way for people to hang themselves. Second, there can be no way for them to create weapons. Third, you must eliminate things that can be thrown.” Hanchar says that the typical facility is, “a hospital with medium-security prison construction.” This means shatter proof glass, solid surface countertops (laminate can be peeled apart), stainless steel toilets and sinks (porcelain can shatter), push pull door latches and furniture that cannot be pulled apart and used as a weapon. These are just to name a few.

Additionally, removing barriers between patients and nursing staff is a safety consideration. Frank Pitts, AIA, FACHA, OAA president of Architecture Plus, says what may be counter-intuitive for safety precautions, “Glass walls around nursing stations just aggravate the patients.” Removing glass or lowering it at nursing stations so patients can feel a more human connection to nurses often calms patients. There is also discussion of removing nursing stations altogether; decentralizing and placing these care needs directly into the clinical neighborhoods and community spaces. Pitt says, “The view is that [nursing staff] need to be out there treating their patients.”

Therapeutic Design Tenants

As medicine is increasingly moving towards “evidence-based” medicine, where clinical choices are informed by research, healthcare design is increasingly guided by research linking the physical environment directly to patient and staff outcomes. Research teams from Texas A&M and Georgia Tech sifted through thousands of scientific articles and identified more than 600 – most from top peer-reviewed journals – to quantify how hospital design can play a direct role in clinical outcomes.

The research teams uncovered a large body of evidence that demonstrates design features such as increased day-lighting, access to nature, reduced noise and increased patient control helped reduce stress, improve sleep, and increase staff effectiveness – all of which promote healing rates and save facilities cost. Therefore, improving physical settings can be a critical tool in making hospitals more safe, more healing, and better places to work.

Today’s therapeutic spaces have been defined to excel in 3 categories:

1. Provide clinical excellence in the treatment of the body

2. Meet the psycho-social needs of patients, families, and staff

3. Produce measurable positive patient outcomes and staff effectiveness

Considering the cost of treating mental illness, which is exceedingly high, and wanting facilities to have effective outcomes, a further practice of incorporating therapeutic design is increasing. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIM H) approximated in 2008 that serious mental illnesses (SMI ), costs the nation $193 billion annually in lost wages. The indirect costs are impossible to estimate.

The estimated direct cost to clinically treat is approximately $70 billion annually and another $12 billion spent towards substance abuse disorders. In addition to the increased need of care and the boom in Behavioral Healthcare construction, it becomes an obligation to make certain that we as facility managers, architects, designers and manufacturers therapeutically plan and design these facilities.

Notably, in 2004, “The Role of the Physical Environment in the Hospital for the 21st Century: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Opportunity,” published by Roger Ulrich P.H.D., of Texas A&M University, was released. In a culmination of evidence-based research, research teams found five design principles that contributed significantly to achieving therapeutic design goals.

The report indicates five key factors that are essential for the psychological well-being of patients, families and staff, including:

1. Access to Nature

2. Provide Positive Distractions

3. Provide Social Support Spaces

4. Give a Sense of Control

5. Reduce or eliminate environmental stress

Access to Nature

Studies indicate that nature might have the most powerful impact to help patient outcomes and staff effectiveness. Nature can be literal or figurative – Uncategorized light, water walls, views to nature, large prints of botanicals and geography, materials that indicate nature and most importantly, stimulating color that evokes nature. Several studies strongly support that access to nature such as day-lighting and appropriate colorations can improve health outcomes such as depression, agitation, sleep, circadian rest-activity rhythms, as well as length of stay in demented patients and persons with seasonal affective disorders (SAD).

These and related studies continue to affirm the powerful impact of Uncategorized elements on patient recovery and stress reduction. Thus, it is clea
r that interior designs which integrate Uncategorized elements can create a more relaxing, therapeutic environment that benefits both patients and staff.

Positive Distractions

These are a small set of environmental features that provide the patient and family a positive diversion from “the difficult” and, in doing so, also negate an institutional feel. These can be views to nature, water walls, artwork, super imposed graphics, sculpture, music – and ideally all of these want to be focused on nature and, when applicable, an interesting use of color. Therapeutic environments that provide such patient-centered features can empower patients and families, but also increase their confidence in the facility and staff. This helps with open lines of communication between patient and caregiver.

Social Support Spaces

These are spaces designed partially for the patient but mainly for the comfort and socialization of family members and friends of the patient; therefore, family lounges, resource libraries, chapels, sleep rooms and consult rooms all play a role. When family and friends play a key role in a patient’s healing, these spaces encourage families to play an active role in the rehabilitation process.

Sense of Control

In times when patients and family feel out of control, it is very healing for the facility design and staff to provide it back when appropriate. Although, this cannot always be done suitably in mental healthcare facilities. However, when applicable, these design features include optional lighting choices, architectural way-finding, resource libraries, enhanced food menus, private patient rooms and

optional areas to reside in. A few well-appointed studies in psychiatric wards and nursing homes have found that optional choices of moveable seating in dining areas enhanced social interaction and improved eating disorders. When patients feel partially in control of their healing program and that the building features are focused to them, an increased confidence of the quality of care enters and tensions lower.

As with all therapeutic design, this allows the caregiver to use their resources healing in lieu of “managing” patient populations.

Reduce or Eliminate Environmental Stress

Noise level measurements show that hospital wards can be excessively noisy places resulting in negative effects on patient outcomes. The continuous background noise produced by medical equipment and staff voices often exceeds the level of a busy restaurant. Peak noise periods (shift changes, equipment alarms, paging systems, telephones, bedrails, trolleys, and certain medical equipment like portable xray machines are comparable to walking next to a busy highway when a motorcycle or large truck passes.

Several studies have focused on infants in NIC Us, finding that higher noise levels, for example, decrease oxygen saturation (increasing need for oxygen support therapy), elevate blood pressure, increase heart and respiration rate, and worsen sleep. Research on adults and children show that noise is a major cause of awakening and sleep loss.

In addition to worsening sleep, there is strong evidence that noise increases stress in adult patients, for example, heightening blood pressure and heart rate. Environmental surfaces in hospitals are usually hard and sound-reflecting, not sound-absorbing causing noise to travel down corridors and into patient rooms. Sounds tend to echo, overlap and linger longer.

Interventions that reduce noise have been found to improve sleep and reduce patient stress. Of these, the environmental or design interventions such as changing to sound-absorbing ceiling tiles, are more successful than organizational interventions like establishing “quiet hours.”

Conclusion and Additional Information

The information contained in this excerpted report is intended as a guide for architects, specifiers, designers, facility planners, medical directors, procurers, psychologists and social workers which have a stake in providing improved facilities for behavioral healthcare patients. It is a portion of a report entitled “The Contributions of Color” authored by Tara Hill, of Little Fish Think Tank. Ms. Hill was commissioned by Norix Group Inc., in 2010 to research the role color plays in the safe operation of correctional facilities and behavioral health centers. More in-depth information specifically about the psychological influence of color and behavioral healthcare facility design can be found by reading the full report.

How an Online Travel Agency Help in Planning your Trip

July 2, 2017

Through the Internet, people today can look for information about any product or service they need in a fast, easy, and convenient way. For instance, if you’re planning a cruise trip, you can use search engines to find a website that offers travel packages. These travel agencies’ websites provide details and anything you need to know about cruise vacations. To know more about this, here are some facts on how an online travel agency can make planning your trip easier.

When browsing a travel agency’s website, you can find information on available itineraries, cruise tours, and shore and rail excursions. Through this platform, you can input details on where you like to go, when and how long you prefer to travel, and which departure port is most convenient for you and your group. Read through the agency’s travel insurance policies posted online to know if these cover medical expenses, trip cancellation, baggage damage, and other possible emergency situations.

Like your local travel agencies, online experts provide basic information about what a cruise trip, for example, entails.

They post information about pre-travel requirements, onboard experiences, activities, and amenities, as well as the different ports you and your fellow passengers can visit during the trip. They also give an overview about the life aboard a cruise ship: the dining options, accommodation arrangements, planned activities for people of all ages, and facilities and amenities for relaxation and entertainment.

An online travel agency Minneapolis has to offer also provides a wide range of options for specific cruise lines and ships.

You can choose a luxury, premium, contemporary, or specialty cruise line that suits your budget, adventure needs, and travel preferences. You can view cruise ships’ deck plans, onboard activities, sophisticated environment, and thus decide which travel package will work best for you and your group.

To maximize your budget, consult an experienced travel agency St Paul residents go to for special offers and competitive prices. You can read through their current promotions and get discounts from cruise lines or land-tour operators in their business network. You can also choose a wonderful cruise vacation package inclusive of full cruise fare, pre- and post-hotel accommodations, and other add-ons through their website.

Websites in general serve as a reliable source of information for people. With online
travel agents Minneapolis companies employ, you can plan your trip faster and in a considerably more convenient way. Through their website, you can also subscribe to email promotions, access quick links, and learn about a desired trip with a few clicks. These make planning a big, budget-friendly adventure easier.

Establishing More Key Client Relationships in Commercial Real Estate Sales and Leasing

June 21, 2017

When it comes to selling and leasing commercial real estate, the quality of the client relationship is really the make or break to the long term results you achieve. The most successful real estate agents in this market are those that have established a solid database of qualified contacts with whom they maintain significant and relevant contact.

In many cases some real estate agents will only have 5 to 10 key clients. In business terms this is relatively low unless you are selling and leasing some of the largest property in the local market; that being very large commercial office buildings, industrial parks, and retail shopping centres.

You should be running and connecting with at least 25 well qualified high end prospects or clients constantly in your pipeline. In addition to that, you should have another 25 prospects that can advance into this elite group.

Creating this essential core of higher end prospects for your business is a constant an ongoing strategy. We have said that there are or should be at least 50 prospects in this upper level of your business pipeline. In addition to that you should have at least another 300 suspects to work with and convert to prospects. All of this takes personal contact strategy and implementation. This is not something that you can pass to your sales manager or office principal. It’s a personal thing requiring commitment and consistency.

To establish a solid client relationships the following business model is useful:

  1. Identify the key properties in your local area and seek out the property ownership detail in each respect. Contact will need to be made with those people.
  2. Review the history of all local and major property transactions over the last five years and create a list of relevant property investors. They will be the sellers or buyers of property in each case. These are people that you will need to personally contact and meet with. It is likely that they will act again one day. It will take you some time to build trust and connection with these people, but do not give up.
  3. Create a list of essential target relationships to be established and nurtured from key people and businesses in the region of your property activity.
  4. Cold call prospecting should feature as part of your business model. Each and every working day at least 50 calls should be made. 50% of those calls should be to new people that you have not spoken to before.
  5. Establishing face to face meetings where ever possible with qualified contacts.
  6. Some clients or prospects will be repeat purchasers. Understanding their needs will be part of the ongoing contact process.
  7. Maintain contact with the local business community constantly an regularly. The larger businesses in your local area may own or rent property. Either way they are sources of market intelligence and listing opportunity for sales or leasing.
  8. Some local businesses will have essential property criteria as part of their business model. Identify these needs and capture them in a database.
  9. Have a number of contact tools and processes which make your repeat approaches to your clients and prospects relevant and informational. You can use newsletters, flyers, brochures, success letters, market trends and information briefings, presentation nights, and having regular ‘one on one’ coffee meetings with your prospects.
  10. Professional people associated with the property industry are also good sources of sales and leasing leads. The people you should maintain contact with here are typically solicitors, property lawyers, engineers, quantity surveyors, property valuer, accountants, and bankers or financiers.

These steps are simple; but powerful are the outcomes if you commit to the process.

Discount Car Rental Deals – Tips For Finding The Best Rates Online

July 15, 2017

The start of the season has already been an excellent start for any search regarding discount car rental deals. As it would be simple to end up being stressed by the whole set of offer within the web-based business, follow this advice intended for simpler look up amongst providers.

For starters, you have to be aware of that you can find a couple of types of providers which are supplying discount car hire deals. In order to save you valuable time, it’s not a secret to expert renters the fact that major worldwide businesses cost more whereas broker agents that team up with them are certainly more low-priced and simpler to acquire large bargains from suppliers.

Therefore the broker agents have the ability to offer the equivalent vehicle class at a lower price. Focus on broker agents in search for the purpose of best offers. Next, there are particular nations which are normally less costly than others. Greece, Cyprus, Slovenia, Malta, Spain, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland as well as Turkey are among the most cost-effective rental car marketplaces throughout Europe.

At the same time Scandinavian regions tend to be famous for much higher starting fees in European union in default in comparison with previously discussed nations Renting a car in Norway, Sweden, Finland or Iceland will never be as cheep as renting a vehicle in Greece. Arranging beforehand is by no means too early.The second the holiday, business travel schedules are identified to you, reserve a vehicle straight away.

Using this method you will enjoy a couple of critical goals: find discount car rental deals effortlessly as last-minute booking and even you will have much more choices to select from in terms of vehicle class diversity.

Finest discount car rental deals in this year are incredibly excellent valued furthermore in Middle East locations together with several European popular area favored by British and Russian as well as German travelers. In order to find out more which places tend to be this year car rental deals supreme destinations check out car rental deals web page and check the rates.

In addition, iPhone and android phone owners can download an application developed to help you find the best car rental deals online. By having an application on your phone you have ability to check out the prices just when you need to without using computer and having an internet connection.

No Teletrack Payday Loans – Loans For People With Bad Credit

July 8, 2017

Payday loans are now the most viable options undertaken by most people who are experiencing financial emergencies. It is a short-term loan that intends to handle an urgent need for cash until their subsequent payday. This new system of lending doesn’t involve a credit check which is a very good privilege for debtors with bad credit. Application for this kinds of loans are usually done online just over the internet. What makes this loaning convenient is the promptness of the depositing of money into the debtors bank account which is approximately 24 hours or sometimes even less.

To explain further Teletrack is a method that is employed to examine the applicant’s credit history and checking account. This system exposes to the loan agency the applicant’s flaw in his credit history such as outstanding checks in opposition to current loans, any imminent court judgments, files for bankruptcy and any other related problems with the credit history. These loan agencies don’t have the exigency to authenticate the information imparted by the prospective borrowers since payday loans do not encompass large sum of money other than the fact that these are only short-term loans.

Payday loan agencies suggest instant cash advance for a temporary period, typically ranging from 2-3 weeks. In comparison to traditional loan companies, payday loan agencies offer higher interest rates in order to give a faster service and to cover any risk that may be encountered in the procedure.

Applying for a no teletrack payday loan

The only thing needed is to accomplish a form containing personal data, employment facts and selected bank account of the borrower. Some lenders who offer no teletrack payday loans obligate the borrower to fax some documents like: the most recent paycheck, a copy of the driver’s license or a banks statement or an electricity bill. In order to be eligible for this kind of loan you must be a US citizen over 18 years of age and must be a full employee of a certain company. Some lenders obligate that you should be employed with the identical firm for the past 6 months. Others require a minimum monthly income of $ 1,000 with all the taxes already deducted. These loans also necessitate checking or savings account that has a debit service. Since the process is apparently easy and simple that checking you credit rating is uncalled-for therefore giving you a probability of almost 100% to be approved.

As soon as you application is approved you can immediately and directly get your money transferred into your checking account. In lieu of these no teletrack payday loans, you won’t have to worry about rigid timings because everything is subject to your decision. Not to mention that you can take advantage of applying for it at perfectly any time you would want to.

Issues on repayment

Repayment of your loan is indicated on your application form but usually it’s the time when you get to accept your next paycheck. The lending companies instantly debit the fund and the fee from your account. In the event that you would need more time to repay your loan, you can always ask for an extension few days preceding the automatic debit. Early payment though is advised so as not to accumulate any added fees. This kind of loan could be a savior but also a burden if not paid on time.

Santorini Car Hire

July 19, 2017

Renting a car in Santorini can give you that extra security and freedom that will make your holiday to Santorini from being good, to becoming exciting.

Before you start your visit to Santorini, it is always important to decide on the places you long to see. If you are sure about which places you would like to see, it would be sensible to reserve your holiday previously, this also goes for hiring a car in Santorini. Many car hire agencies in Santorini offer cheaper bookings for travelers that book weeks in advance; you can even claim back up to 30% or even up to 50% if you are reserving during the weekend. Taking a trip during the off peak season means that you will be able to get a discount on your overall holiday, this also means that car rental during this period is at its cheapest.

If you are renting a car from Isl-Santorini Airport, there are many things you will need to think about if you want your rental to run relaxingly. One of the most important to remember to bring both your driving license (and of course your passport!) with you, you need to own a valid license and an International Driving permit (IDP). It is necessary that you keep your passport to hand and also your IDP with you at all times when you are on the road.

With a car rental in Santorini, you will be able to travel around the whole of this mini island, from its picturesque beaches, to the diverse settings especially the views of its volcano. Although the two popular beach towns of Kamari and Perissa are very close, the mountains between them means that you will need to drive around the mountain as there is no road connecting the two small beach towns. The small towns of Oia and Fira are unusually built into the side of a cliff! This, as well as the Minoan ruins in Akrotiri are all easy to drive to in your hired car.

If you are looking to hire a car in Santorini, there are many rental agencies spread along the islands, providing visitors many choices, from luxury range of cars to the more cost-effective cars. If you settle on hiring a car, you will have the freedom to create your own travel plans that suits you and your family. Even though a small Island, to enjoy you stay in Santorini, book with a car rental agency to make your vacation a more memorable experience.

Top 5 Outdoor Activities For Kids

July 9, 2017

Finding safe, fun outdoor activities for kids in all weathers may be a little challenging but definitely isn’t impossible. With the right kids clothes outdoor play can be enjoyed on most days. Anyone can find something fun and exciting to do during the warmer weather but what about those wind-swept autumn days or frost-bitten winter mornings?

Actually, finding something to do in all weather is more about an attitude change than an activity change. More and more these days we feel it may be too wet to go out or too cold when actually even a short period outdoors in inclement weather can make for a lot of fun.

A New Twist On Old Favourites

Not only can the activities be entertainment but it is a perfect way to teach children to be more aware of the world around them and how seasons work to affect the plant and animal life on earth. This in turn will bring them to think with empathy on other ways of life and how to better care for their environment.

Backyard cricket – This iconic game of Australia is a summer played sport but that doesn’t mean you can’t play forms of it in other seasons. You can use it to link back to some of our heritage and even use it to explore the cultures of the other countries that play. Tippety Run is an easy form of the game where you must run between wickets anytime the ball is hit. Wickets can be anything, even plastic rubbish bins, and because it is an active game it will keep kiddies warm on cooler days. It teaches teamwork as well.

Kite Making – the best things about kites is they need a windy day to fly so autumn and spring are going to be perfect. Of course, no electrical storms for flying but a good stiff wind is perfect and means less work to get the kite off the ground. Children will find these easy to make and with some encouragement and some basic kite flying principles they will soon be doing their own designs. The tails can be long and fancy and a big kite is a wonderful group project. This is a great way to discuss how birds fly and what other things might be found airborne in the autumn and spring. Older kids can learn about the power in lightning and how it can travel to the earth.

Treasure Hunt – Depending on where you live and how safe you feel the children will be wandering around it may pay to split into teams with an older teenager or adult with no more than two younger children. Toddler and preschoolers should always have adult supervision. You may need to take a drive to find a suitable spot if you live in a city.

A rock the size of a 20c coin
The longest stick you can find
A spiky leaf
Something the shape of a love heart
This can be done in several ways and is fantastic for all age groups; you simply adjust the clues according to age group. You can also award prizes for certain categories. A sample list might be:

You can tell them not to destroy anything living to get the objects and even a few showers won’t hurt this one at all. Just get them to don the raincoats, hats and boots and get excited about going out into the rain for a little while.

Outdoor Painting – Painting outdoors is perfect if there is going to be a big downpour likely. It’s easy to do when the cement or walls are already wet. Use big paintbrushes and safe, water soluble paints. Even big pavement chalk is fantastic to run out in between showers to draw and then watch it get washed away. This is the perfect opportunity to discuss how rain is formed in the clouds and what happens when it rains. Kids can watch the clouds moving fast in a stormy sky and make up stories about them and then try to paint those stories. Imaginations will run wild.

Sprinkler Play – Once before we could turn on the sprinkler on a hot day and play until our heart’s content. But the reality of water shortages is pertinent today and responsibility with water is an important thing to instill in our kids. They can still have sprinkler play but place the sprinkler into a pool and discuss ways to reuse the water when they have finished with it. It might be to put on the winter veggie patch that you sow in early summer. Water is an excellent source of education and play. Rainy days can help to show children what happens to water, where it goes after the drain hole, and what effect it has on the place it ends up in.

There really is no limit as long as you don’t mind a bit more kids clothing in the wash. Once rugged up well even breaking ice in puddles on a frosty morning is so much fun. There is a huge variety of kids clothes and kids protective clothes available today so no more excuses about the weather being bad, go and enjoy our world.

Why to Buy Electronic Cigarettes?

June 9, 2017

The easiest way to by electronic cigarettes is online. Just visit an ecigs online store and check out different ecig brands, ecigs styles and accessories and make a quick purchase. Ecigs are available in varying styles such as mini, pen style, cigar, pipe and much more. Anyone new to using ecigs, start out with a disposable type or a starter pack. The disposable type is only for one time usage and is usually a single device that’s large and a bit on the heavy side. E-cigarette starter packs on the other hand include all necessary items such as atomizer, rechargeable batteries, carry case, wall charger and cartridges.

Those looking to quit smoking will find e-cigarettes the best alternative because it is a far more effective product than other quit smoking products. Taking a drag on an ecig is an experience on its own because you can pull as long as you want and inhale a big puff of vapor that’s really addicting.

Ecigs give the same sensation as that of smoking a traditional cigarette. They look just like normal cigarettes, feel just like them and are definitely a healthier alternative because they do not have any tar or tobacco. They do not pollute the air around you and can be used in places where smoking is banned because ecigs vapor is just white smoke that does not have any pollutants.

Another reason to buy e-cigarettes is that the nicotine or flavor cartridges last for a long time. One cartridge is equivalent to a carton of cigarettes and you can use them for essentially such a long time, without having to go to a store. E-cigarettes cost a fraction of what a normal cigarette costs.

There are many e-cigarettes brands and the difference lies in the device structure and available flavors. Some brands offer a three-piece device and others a two-piece one, which is easier to use. Top e-cigarettes brands include Green Smoke’, Smoke Stik’, Blu Electronic’, Volcano E-Cigarettes’, USA Cig’, eSmoke Freedom’, and CigartiTM’, and The Safe Cig’.

E-cigarettes users have reported a definite change in their habit after using them because of the way they work and the smoking satisfaction that they provide. Many report that they do not take up a traditional cigarette afterwards. The device is easy-to-use and cheaper than traditional cigarettes that can cost an average smoke more than $2000 annually.

Fixing Solutions for Automotive Industry

July 9, 2017

Automotive industry demands high strength fasteners and precision components such as nuts, bolts, studs, screws, rivets, tie rods, shims etc. that are applied to various parts and components to hold and connect two or more surfaces or objects together in a structure.

Automotive industry uses fixing components coming in a huge variety of materials ranging from common steel to aluminum, brass, copper, titanium and plastic to other exotic materials. Choosing the material to manufacture these fixing components is essential due to difference between each material’s strength, corrosion resistance, brittleness, galvanic corrosion properties, and of course cost. Materials are basically selected on considerations of environment, corrosive or thermal extremes, magnetic properties, weight, re usability, stresses, and expected life time.

Depending on these specifications materials are classified into grades & quality standards to produce specific quality alloy mixtures that are then used to produce the fixing components. In addition to this, materials are further processed through a variety of coating, plating and hardening processes to form different specified grades of the alloy mixtures.

The various stages to enhance the metal corrosion resistance and appearance increase the cost of production that leads to expensive parts and fixing components. To keep costs within control, it is always advisable to use standardized materials. As specifying the material with specific chemical analysis adds time & cost to the whole process of manufacturing of fixing components. In a common practice, using standard materials only needs heat treating, cold working and coating to manufacture ready to use fixing components.

Quality is the primary concern for every manufacturing process and hence in order to manufacture high quality fixing tools and apply best industry practices that ensure timely deliverables, companies apply quality control methods such as computerized statistical process control archival documentation and various other approaches.

Inspection process involves utilizing tri-roll gages, hardness testers and optical comparators to ensure optimum performance. Automated sorting technologies are applied for assurance of contaminant free product for use in automated feeding equipment. Other than this, third party inspection, verification and certifications testify quality process on the go.

Used in a variety of application areas, replacing fasteners is quite tedious. It is generally best to match them while replacing. Replacing a bolt or screw with a stronger one is always now a good practice as harder bolts tends to be more brittle and may not work for specific applications. In some environments, applying galvanic corrosion methodology may result better.

Nursing Entrepreneurship Creates New Opportunities For Nurses

June 19, 2017

While too many people in most industries are still struggling to find jobs, nursing continues to be one the most in-demand positions. This demand for nurses brings more than job security, it brings opportunities for nursing entrepreneurship to those nurses who are looking for more than just a job.

Taking the Leap to Self Employment

The first question potential nurse entrepreneurs need to answer is whether freelancing or business ownership really suits them. Most everyone can agree on the advantages: being one’s own boss, more flexibility with one’s schedule, able to focus on the work one enjoys most, and best of all, unlimited economic potential.

There are, however, serious challenges as well. People mistakenly believe that the greatest obstacle in starting a business is having the money to get started. This is false. There are a number of business opportunities that require very little start up capital. If some money is needed, entrepreneurs have a number of ways of accessing it.

Instead, the most common roadblock to entrepreneurship is in the mind. A freelancer or entrepreneur has to have the internal fortitude to put themselves into the marketplace and have the confidence to pursue their vision. Everyone’s confidence waivers from time to time, the larger issue is whether such mental blocks can be overcome.

Freelance or Open a Small Business

Deciding whether to freelance, that is work as an independent contractor, or open a small business that will grow to have additional employees, isn’t a decision that has to be made immediately. In fact, since the value nurses have to sell is expertise, it’s very easy to begin as a freelancer. As demand grows and the nurse entrepreneur becomes more comfortable with the business side of the work, then a freelancer can transition into a small business if one wants.

In either case, there are legal issues surrounding working as a freelancer and starting a business. A number of organizations that specialize in helping new entrepreneurs or nurse entrepreneurs specifically can offer some guidance on the potential legal issues that can arise. They will also likely be able to connect new entrepreneurs with lawyers who can help.

What Types of Nursing Businesses Exist

The best businesses are those that find a need in the marketplace that isn’t being met. Any nurse who’s worked through the system can list the situations where nurses, medical staff, patients, or anyone part of the health system has gotten frustrated by an issue. Exploring potential solutions for those types of situations can lead one to a good business idea.

However, it isn’t necessary to reinvent the wheel. There are a number of well-established nursing entrepreneurship ideas that others have already made successful. Just as the need for nurses grows as health becomes a larger national issue, so will the need for the types of nurse entrepreneur businesses that already exist. One should never think because the business already exists, the marketplace is full.

Experienced nurses can use their backgrounds to pursue any of these entrepreneur ideas:

- temporary staffing services

- home care service

- care case managers

- medical bill review

- personal coach in wellness, nutrition, or patient advocacy

- operational consultant for facilities

- trainer either for other medical professionals or to general public as part of a wellness clinic or program

- medical equipment or clothing supplier

Copyright (c) 2012 Nurse Entrepreneur Network

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